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FAQs / Glossary

  • What is OS&E?  OS&E is short for  Hotel Operating Supplies and Equipment.
  • HOE = Hotel Operating Equipment.
  • What is FF&E?: Furniture Fixtures & Equipment.
  • What is luxury hotel equipment?:The highest quality products in terms of design, functionality, materials and construction.


  • Advanced payment bond

Guarantee supplied by a party receiving an advance payment to the party advancing the payment. It provides that the advanced sum will be returned if the agreement under which the advance was made cannot be fulfilled. Also called advance payment guarantee.
Related Videos…
Performance bonds.

  • Agile management or agile project management is an iterative method of determining requirements for engineering and information technology development projects in a highly flexible and interactive manner, for example agile software development. It requires empowered individuals from the relevant business, with supplier and customer input.[citation needed] There are also links to lean techniques, Kanban and Six Sigma.[1] Agile techniques are best used in small-scale projects or on elements of a wider programme of work, or on projects that are too complex for the customer to understand and specify before testing prototypes.[2]Agile techniques may also be called extreme project management. It is a variant of iterative life cycle[1] where deliverables are submitted in stages. One difference between agile and iterative development is that the delivery time in agile is in weeks rather than months.The Agile Project Leadership Network[2] provides a community of practice for those using Agile methods, with international conferences and online forums. Their Declaration of Interdependence[3] extends the Agile Manifesto[4] further into the value stream and emphasises the collaborative, whole-business nature of this work.Agile Methods are mentioned in the Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) under the Project Lifecycle definition: A project life cycle, also known as change-driven or agile methods, that is intended to facilitate change and require a high degree of ongoing stakeholder involvement. Adaptive life cycles are also iterative and incremental, but differ in that iterations are very rapid (usually 2-4 weeks in length) and are fixed in time and resources.


  • Agent or distributor?There is a fundamental legal difference between agents and distributors. An agent negotiates on your behalf and may be entitled to create a legal relationship between you and the customer.A distributor buys goods on its own account from you and resells them to customers. It is the distributor which has the sale contract with the customer not you “ the distributor takes on the financial risk of not being able to sell the product.
  • What is an agent?An agent is a person involved in making a contract between his principal and the principals customer.
  • Commercial agents The label commercial agent covers a broad spectrum of arrangements, some examples below:a self-employed salesman operating on commission for a single principal within part of a single country (almost an employee)
    a sales agent appointed for an overseas territory with local knowledge and connections and with several different principals, over whom each principal has very little effective control.The legal framework is similar in both cases but the issues arising can vary considerably and legal advice should always be sought at the start of these relationships so agreements can fully reflect the terms.The power of an agentAs the agent is only an intermediary, he is generally not a party to the contract between the principal and the principals customer and will not have rights or obligations under it. For most purposes, the agents acts are treated as those of his principal. Future Law can advise on the best agreement to have with your commercial agents to limit the risks to your business. Call us on 0844 209 8500 for a no obligation chat about how we can help you.Distributors
  • A distributor buys goods from a supplier and sells them on to his own customers.
  • The differences between an agent and a distributor:

– In contrast to an agent, a distributor usually has no authority to create a contract between the supplier and customer.
– The supplier has no contract with the customer of the distributor, although he may have liability under general legal principles or under product liability legislation.
– A distributor takes more financial risk than an agent but this should be reflected in the margins on resale of the product(s).

  • How this affects you and your business.

The relationships between your business and its agents and distributors need to be clearly outlined in an agreement. That way your business has less risks, everyone is clear on their roles and responsibilities and payment arrangements are clearly laid out. This reduces expensive disputes as the relationships develop.

  • Amenities:Hotel consumables like soap or shampoo in guestrooms.
  • American National Standards Institute(ANSI):The umbrella body for standardisation in the USA, publishers of the standards of each of the 100 or so sponsor organisations
  • American Society for the Testing of Materials (ASTM): A source of voluntary consensus standards on materials, products, systems and services, republished every year.
  • Appreciation: Describes a currency strengthening in response to market demand rather than by official action.
  • Bank guarantee .
    What’s the difference between a bank guarantee and a letter of credit?
    A bank guarantee and a letter of credit are similar in many ways but they’re two different things. Letters of credit ensure that a transaction proceeds as planned, while bank guarantees reduce the loss if the transaction doesn’t go as planned.A letter of credit is an obligation taken on by a bank to make a payment once certain criteria are met. Once these terms are completed and confirmed, the bank will transfer the funds. This ensures the payment will be made as long as the services are performed.A bank guarantee, like a line of credit, guarantees a sum of money to a beneficiary. Unlike a line of credit, the sum is only paid if the opposing party does not fulfill the stipulated obligations under the contract. This can be used to essentially insure a buyer or seller from loss or damage due to nonperformance by the other party in a contract.For example a letter of credit could be used in the delivery of goods or the completion of a service. The seller may request that the buyer obtain a letter of credit before the transaction occurs. The buyer would purchase this letter of credit from a bank and forward it to the seller’s bank. This letter would substitute the bank’s credit for that of its client, ensuring correct and timely payment.A bank guarantee might be used when a buyer obtains goods from a seller then runs into cash flow difficulties and can’t pay the seller. The bank guarantee would pay an agreed-upon sum to the seller. Similarly, if the supplier was unable to provide the goods, the bank would then pay the purchaser the agreed-upon sum. Essentially, the bank guarantee acts as a safety measure for the opposing party in the transaction.These financial instruments are often used in trade financing when suppliers, or vendors, are purchasing and selling goods to and from overseas customers with whom they don’t have established business relationships. The instruments are designed to reduce the risk taken by each party.Read more:
  • Performance bond definition 2
    One major concern a person has when hiring a contractor is whether or not that person will be able to perform the job. Even if the contractor is qualified and has a good reputation, his business may suffer a catastrophic event or financial crisis that could jeopardize the project. To alleviate this concern, it has become a standard practice in large construction projects for the contractor to procure a performance bond. A performance bond is a bond issued by a bank or insurance company which guarantees that a contractor will satisfactorily complete a project.

In Europe, these bonds are usually issued by a bank and are called “bank guarantees in the United Kingdom, or a caution in France. In the United States, the bonds are generally issued by an insurance company, though they may be issued by a bank or even a private party. In all cases, the performance bond constitutes a three-way contract between the owner, or the principal, the contractor, called the obligee, and the company offering the bond, known as the surety. This is not an insurance policy, but a financial guarantee that the work will be performed satisfactorily.

While the contractor is the party to procure the performance bond, the cost is paid by the owner and should be included in the bid. It covers 100% of the contract cost and usually has a defined time limit for completion of the job. The bond also guarantees that the cost of the project will match the bid, provided that the owner sticks to the work defined in the contract. If an owner wishes to make changes along the way, then a contract change should be executed delineating any additional cost and time required for completion. Once the job is completed satisfactorily, the bond becomes void.

If a contractor becomes insolvent, runs over budget, or for some other reason does not complete the work on time, he is considered to be in default. When a default occurs, the bond usually gives the owner three options; he can be given the money to complete the work himself, he can pick a new contractor, or he can allow the surety company to find a new contractor. Funds will be provided, up to the original contract cost, to complete the project.

A performance bond is also the name, formerly used in the United States, to refer to the collateral deposit an investor is required to make when entering a futures contract. This bond, or margin account as it is now called, is used to cover the brokers financial risk in handling the account. A futures contract is a contract to buy a specific quantity of a commodity or financial instrument at a set price on a future date. These contracts are traded on a central financial exchange.

In the US, a performance bond is only required on government projects which exceed a cost of $100,000 US Dollars (USD). It is not generally advisable for an owner to insist upon a bond for a small job. Since the fee for such a bond would be small, it could be very difficult for a contractor to find a surety willing to cover a bathroom remodel or a new deck. On a major project, however, a performance bond is a worthwhile investment.

  • Bedding that keeps a person warm in bed. Popular types include wool, nylon, acrylic, cotton, polyester, and blends of various natural and synthetic materials.
  • Bone china  is made from a combination of 25% china stone, 25% china clay and 50% calcined cattle bones. Bone china has been produced in since the early 19th century. Often used in fine dining rooms
  • BSI

British Standards is the National Standards Body of the UK and develops standards and standardization solutions to meet the needs of business and society. They work with government, businesses and consumers to represent UK interests and facilitate the production of British, European and international standards. More British Standards products and services help organizations to successfully implement best practice, manage business critical decisions and achieve excellence. This includes a wide range of published information and commissioned services delivered under the BSI Business Information brand

  • Budget (FF&E OS&E)  A plan for determining in advance the expenditure of money. It consists of a summary of the expected expenditure for the different departments and sections along with a detailed list of items which can be 500 pages long.
  • Budget Controller is responsible for ensuring that a realistic detailed budget is prepared at the earliest possible time.
  • Budget Listing (FF&E, OS&E)
  • A plan for determining in advance the expenditure of money. A detailed list of items.
  • Catering Equipment Suppliers Association (CESA)Cesa represents over 100 companies who supply commercial catering equipment – from utensils to full kitchen schemes. Buying from a CESA member gives you the security of knowing that you are buying from a business that wants to ensure that you get professional advice and service
  • Chipboard will typically be mainly composed of recycled wood fibre, such as old pallets which have come to the end of their first useful life.
  • Codes EU USA Products should conform to the strictest EU, USA Standards eg ISO, EN, ANSI, ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials),NBN, NF -applicable to International Hotels
  • Cloud-Software as a service (SaaS)
    Main article: Software as a service
  • Beds Spring Mattresses: This is the most common type in the U.K. The number of springs used and the thickness of the metal affect the feel and determine support the better the support. Open Springs are generally found in the mid price range of beds. Rows of hour glass shaped springs are connected top and bottom by a spiral wire and the edge of the unit is normally strengthened by a retaining flat or round rod edge.Pocket Springs are rows of smaller, lighter parallel or barrel shaped springs, each in a separate fabric pocket which slightly compresses the spring. The rows of springs are clipped, tied or glued together. Pocket springs allow for a more flexible response, giving a higher degree of body support and are generally found in the mid upper price bracket.Non Sprung Mattresses: Most non sprung mattresses are made from latex.
  • Bedding
  • Benchmarking is the continuous systematic process of measuring and assessing products, services and practices against those of recognized leaders in the field to determine the extent to which one can improve the organisation’s performance. Environmental and energy performance benchmarking is an internal management process and tool designed to provide management with reliable and verifiable information on an ongoing basis to determine whether an hotels energy and environmental performance is meeting the criteria set by the management.
  • Bid or quotation Price at which a supplier has offered to sell the product with terms and conditions.
  • China OEM Agreements. You Are Naked Without A Good Bill Of Material
  • By Dan Harris on March 24th, 2010 Posted in Legal News This post was written by Jon Zimmerman. Jon has been practicing international law for nearly 18 years and has been heavily involved in China law for 15 of those years. Jon was even at one time the General Counsel for the Chinese electronics firm, Sichuan Changhong Electric Co. Ltd, or Changhong. He now represents both Chinese and Western companies in their international transactions, with an emphasis on intellectual property licensin


  • Manufacturing agreements between foreign companies and their Chinese manufacturers typically come with all sorts of clauses dealing with choice of law, indemnification, time of delivery, failure rate, price, payment, and various other contractual provisions. But, it is often the Bill of Materials that will make or break the success of the manufacturing relationship, but far too often this document is either ignored or given far too short a shrift.
    The Bill of Materials is simply a list of the components to be used in fabricating the proposed product. A good Bill of Materials, inserted as an appendix or addendum to an Original Equipment Manufacturing (OEM) agreement, should specify in painful detail exactly what the Chinese manufacturer must use in manufacturing the product. A well drafted and precise Bill of Materials minimizes the likelihood of confusion and future mistakes, which in turn saves money. It can help minimize product defects and recalls.
    I have seen far too many OEM manufacturing agreements that did not have a Bill of Materials and far too many OEM agreements where the Bill of Materials was not made a part of the contract. Perhaps even worse, I have seen Bills of Materials that were made a part of the contract, but that allowed the Chinese manufacturer to substitute any component in the Bill of Materials whenever it felt like it. There is oftentimes nothing wrong with allowing your Chinese manufacturer to make substitute materials with your knowledge and approval, but there is a lot wrong with a Bill of Materials that gives your Chinese manufacturer complete discretion to substitute in materials.
    When a problem arises, you should be able to cross-reference your Bill of Materials with the actual product to see if the correct components are present. When I see Chinese manufactured products with high return or defect rates, the cause is almost invariably the Chinese manufacturer having used cheaper components. But far too often, I also find that there was nothing in the OEM contract or in the Bill of Materials (or in the two of them working together) that contractually prevented the Chinese manufacturer from having done exactly what it did.
    If you want to reduce your chances of defective or dangerous product, you cannot just rely on your Chinese manufacturer to do the right thing in terms of your products materials or components. It is your responsibility to make sure your Chinese manufacturer is using the correct materials in manufacturing your product. A well drafted Bill of Materials is the first step towards that.


  • BCFA British Contract Furnishing Association
    The BCFA today is a global business association for the contract furnishing industry, covering the full spectrum of interior products and services. Its members are leading manufacturers, suppliers and designers of furnishing services for commercial buildings throughout the UK and in many world markets. They include: hotels, restaurants, offices, schools & universities, hospitals, care homes, cruise ships, outdoor spaces, sporting and leisure venues ­ in fact anywhere outside the domestic housing market. Quality means value.
    The criteria for achieving membership is based on quality, quality in every activity that leads to a great customer experience and gives real value.
  • Codes Local Most countries will have regulations regarding the safety of items and materials. These concentrate on the fire and electrical characteristics although other factors may also be covered. Unfortunately there has been little progress towards standardisation of these tests and even where national tests are standardised local interpretation of regulations can differ between cities. It is important that this problem is addressed in the bidding progress and the vendors advised that supplying the relevant local certification is a part of their responsibilities and that payment will not be made until it is supplied. Local knowledge must be sought.


  • Products standards include:
    -Fire, safety, electrical, health, hygiene, electrical, green performance)
    -Hotel operator’s standards.
    -EU, USA Standards eg ISO, EN, ANSI, ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials),NBN, NF applicable to International Hotels
    -Performance standards for International Hotels.
    -Local and National standards eg BS, DIN, Coffee machine ITALIAN ESPRESSO NATIONAL INSTITUTE (I.N.E.I ) Certificate of product conformity UL, ETL Sanitation e NSF =
    United States TUV NSF Certification
    VDE – Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker Testing & Certification Inst. (German Electrical Standard)


  • Definition of Scope(FF&E)A document which lists in detail what is and what is not FF&E.
  • Delivery schedule A timetable detailing when items should be delivered.
  • Demurrage A penalty raised by ports and shipping lines when freight is not collected
  • Definition of ‘Conducting Due Diligence – ‘DD’


1. An investigation or audit of a potential investment. Due diligence serves to confirm all material facts in regards to a sale.

2. Generally, due diligence refers to the care a reasonable person should take before entering into an agreement or a transaction with another party.
Investopedia Says
Investopedia explains ‘Due Diligence – DD’
1. Offers to purchase an asset are usually dependent on the results of due diligence analysis. This includes reviewing all financial records plus anything else deemed material to the sale. Sellers could also perform a due diligence analysis on the buyer. Items that may be considered are the buyer’s ability to purchase, as well as other items that would affect the purchased entity or the seller after the sale has been completed.

2. Due diligence is a way of preventing unnecessary harm to either party involved in a transaction.

  • CEN is a non-profit organization set up under Belgian law. Through its services, it provides a platform for the development of European Standards (ENs) and other consensus documents.
  • Delivered Duty Paid (DDP) Definition | Investopedia
  • EPEAT®-registered electronic products meet environmental measures referred to as criteria. All of the criteria used in EPEAT are based on ANSI-approved public standards, which provide technical details for every criterion and specify how a manufacturer must demonstrate compliance.*Currently, EPEAT registration is based on the IEEE 1680 family of Environmental Assessment Standards. This includes the IEEE 1680 umbrella standard, which describes how products are registered by declaring their compliance to specific criteria, how they are rated based on the criteria they meet, how registration by country operates and how product declarations are verified. The related product standard IEEE 1680.1 contains the specific criteria for PCs and PC displays upon which EPEAT registration and ratings are currently based.As standards for new product categories are published by the IEEE or other standards bodies, EPEAT will adopt them as the basis for expanding registry coverage to additional types of electronic products. Standards are currently in development through the IEEE for Imaging Equipment (printers, copiers, fax machines) and for Televisions, and EPEAT expects to add these products to the registry in 2012.* For more information about standards and their development, or if you are a manufacturer looking to register a product in EPEAT and need to purchase 1680 and 1680.1 (as required by EPEAT), please visit the IEEE site. Search for 1680 standards in the store.How products qualify for EPEATProducts are measured against both required and optional criteria. A product must meet all of the required criteria in its category to be added to the registry. It is then rated Bronze, Silver or Gold depending on how many of the optional criteria it meets.
  • EBITDA is essentially net income with interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization added back to it, and can be used to analyze and compare profitability between companies and industries because it eliminates the effects of financing and accounting decisions.
    Revenue-Expenses (excluding tax, interest, depreciation and amortization
  • ESCROW  A financial instrument held by a third party on behalf of the other two parties in a transaction. The funds are held by the escrow service until it receives the appropriate written or oral instructions-or until obligations have been fulfilled. Securities, funds, and other assets can be held in escrow.
  • e-tendering is a web based process where requests for information and prices are sent to suppliers. Suppliers enter prices and specifications online for analysis .E-purchase orders are sent to the chosen supplier by email.
  • Finish could be divided into four areas; color, look, feel, and protection. Less expensive finishes are the same color as more expensive finishes, but they do not have the same look or feel. Middle to upper priced furniture has the same look as high-end furniture, but not the same feel. Protection is the amount of lacquer or clear-coats that are on the products As you go higher in price points, you find more protection through more coats or build of material. These differences create a lot of the cost difference in products that look very similar.
    Color is what you notice about finishes when you view furniture from twenty to thirty feet away. Thats why many pieces of furniture look like they are the same color if you are standing back and looking at displays in a large store. But as you get closer, ten to fifteen feet away, there are some distinctive differences. These differences on the more expensive furniture are subtle hues that blend together to create a softer, more sophisticated look. And when you get close enough to touch the furniture that may look the same from a distance, the higher priced furniture will have a softer, silkier feel. The most expensive furniture would also have more protection; the least expensive products have very little protection.
  • EU Timber regulation-requirements in a nutshell
    The regulation applies to two types of organisation within the EU timber supply chain. The bulk  of the requirements apply to whoever first places the timber product on the EU market. This organisation is referred to as the operator. In addition to requirements for operators, there are also
    requirements for traceability for all the other participants in the supply chain prior to sale to the final consumer. These organisations are all referred to as traders.
  • Requirements for operators: It is prohibited to place timber on the EU market if it was illegally harvested. Anyone placing timber or timber products onto the EU market for the first time must implement a due diligence system to mitigate the risk that the timber was illegally harvested.
    The regulation sets out the basic components of the due diligence system which must be in place. This will be further elaborated by secondary legislation being developed by the European Commission due to be finalised by June 2012. The due diligence system consists of three main
    components (see Figure 2):
    Information: There are specific requirements for the type of information which must be available including information on the product and supplier, the country where the timber was  harvested and information on compliance with applicable forestry legislation in the country
    of harvest. It is important to note that the operator does not have to have all this information directly, but needs to have ready access to it in order to make a risk assessment.
  • Risk assessment procedure: Each operator is required to have a risk assessment procedure  which takes into account the information collected about the product and also relevant risk criteria. Risk criteria include indicators of high risk such as prevalence of illegal harvesting in
    the country of harvest or long and complex supply chains, as well as indicators of low risk such
    as certification or credible verification of legality.  Risk mitigation procedures: Where the risk assessment indicates that there is some risk of a
    product containing illegally harvested timber, risk mitigation procedures must be put in place.  The regulation does not provide much guidance on what these should be but does indicate that  they should be adequate and proportionate and might involve requesting further information.
    Requirements for traders: Any trader purchasing and selling timber products which have already been placed on the internal market (see Figure 1), must keep records for 5 years, which identify: The operator or trader who supplied the timber and timber products
    Where applicable, the trader to whom the timber and timber products were sold.


  • FIRA The Furniture Industry Research Association (FIRA) is a non-government funded organisation, a company limited by guarantee and a not-for-profit membership-based organisation.
    FIRA International is an independent consultancy company providing services to the furniture industry supply chain. FIRA International provides these services itself and through its other companies, ukfirst and Qualitas. It is a member of the TTL Chiltern Group of companies and is FIRA’s appointed provider for its Research and Information Programmes and for the administration of its membership services. FIRA International also provides a wide range of commercial and training services. Details of all of these services are accessible from the home page of this web site
  • Fire resistant refers to a fabric or fibre that has been treated to discourage the spreading of flames and delays heat penetration through a substrate.
  • Fire Retardant A fabric that retards the spreading of flames. A flame retardant fabric can be made by using fibres that are themselves flame retardant (inherently flame retardant), or by using special finishes on fabrics. A fire retardant material slows burning across the surface of a combustible substrate.
  • Fireproof means that a fabric literally will not burn. To be labeled fireproof, the Federal Trade Commission requires that a fabric must be 100% fireproof. If the fiber or fabric has been treated to prevent flames from spreading, it must be labeled as fire resistant.
  • Fit for Purpose and MerchantablePart of Sale of Goods Act
  • Flame Retardancy
    United Kingdom * Furnishing & Drape Fabrics BS 5867 parts 1 & 2, type A,B & C
    Upholstery Fabrics Ignition sources 0 (cigarette) and 1 (match) when tested in accordance with BS 5852 part 1 and can pass ignition source 5 (crib) over suitable CMHR foam in accordance with BS 5852. Predictively tested to BS 7176 1991, medium hazard areas. BS EN 1021 : 1 and BS EN 1021 : 2
    Bedspreads & Coverlets All quilted bedspreads and coverlets with flame retardant filler and flame retardant lining comply to BS 7175: 1989 section three, ignition source 0,1 and 5.
    International France Standards for M1/M2 Germany DIN 4102 B1 low flammability, B2 normal flammability Italy CSE RF 1/75/A and CSE RF 3/77 Class 1
    Complies with most other European and International standards. Details available on request.
    Maritime IMO Resolution A471 (X11), IMO A563 (14) and IMO A652 (16) as embodied in IMO-844E.
    All fabrics are approved to carry the ship’s wheelmark
  • Flameproof is a synonym for fireproof.
  • Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) enables you to buy forest products of all kinds with confidence that you are not contributing to global forest destruction. FSC certified forests are managed to ensure long term timber supplies while protecting the environment and the lives of forest-dependent peoples. FSC certification can also cover non-timber forest products such as latex and foods. A system of Chain of Custody certification traces forest products through the supply chain to the end-consumer. Whenever you buy timber or timber products always look for the FSC logo. Everyone uses forest products in their business or daily life, and FSC offers solutions
  • French Fire codes 
    M0, signifies “incombustible”
    M1, signifies “non inflammable”
    M2, signifies “difficilement inflammable”
    M3, signifies “moyennement inflammable”
  • Furniture Industry Sustainability Programme (FISP) Independent proof of an organisation’s commitment to sustainable development l easing the fears of increasingly discerning buyers. Government departments, Local Authorities, retailers, schools, hospitals and large corporate companies are becoming aware of FISP and the added value that it can bring to them, with most demanding that their suppliers are members.
    FISP membership brings added benefits:
    * benchmarking * good practice guide * annual industry performance reports


  • Furniture, Fixtures and Equipment(FF&E)
    FF&E is short for Furniture, Fixtures and Equipment. The items normally have some form of underlying value. Because there is considerable opportunity for costly confusion we have developed a Definition of Scope document which lists in detail what is and what is not FF&E. FF&E includes all fixed kitchen and laundry equipment including cold rooms and kitchen hoods, health club equipment, computers with their associated equipment and software, all loose furniture, decorative lighting, carpets, curtains and bed covers. It does NOT include consumable supplies such as food, drink or paper products, wall coverings, hard floor finishes, wall tiling, plumbing fixtures such as faucets, washbasins, baths or wcs, built-in millwork such as the reception desk, PABX systems and handsets, or computer cabling.
  • Gastronorm sizes are standard sizes of container used in the catering industry specified in the EN 631 standards:
    * GN1/9 : 108 x 176 mm * GN1/6 : 175 x 162 mm * GN1/4 : 265 x 163 mm * GN1/3 : 325 x 175 mm * GN1/2 : 325 x 265 mm * GN2/3 : 354 x 325 mm * GN1/1 : 530 x 325 mm * GN2/1 : 650 x 530 mm
  • Ground fault interruptor
    GFI’s (Ground Fault Interruptors) measure the difference between the hot conductor current and the neutral current.
    In a normal (no fault) circuit, every single milliamp of current flowing out of the hot should return through the neutral. In other words, the two currents should be equal.
    If there is a ground fault, at least some of the current flows from the hot, through the fault path, to ground. In this case the neutral current is less than the hot current by however much is flowing to ground. The GFI senses this difference and trips, opening the circuit.
    GFI’s are designed to protect equipment from damage and trip at around 30 ma. of differential current.
    GFCI receptacles (Ground Fault Circuit Interruptors) like the ones you might find in your bathroom, and GFCI circuit breakers are designed to protect people, and trip much lower, around 5 ma.


  • HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) is the technology of indoor and automotive environmental comfort. HVAC system design is a major subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, based on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer. Refrigeration is sometimes added to the field’s abbreviation as HVAC&R or HVACR, or ventilating is dropped as in HACR (such as the designation of HACR-rated circuit breakers).
  • HVAC is important in the design of medium to large industrial and office buildings such as skyscrapers and in marine environments such as aquariums, where safe and healthy building conditions are regulated with respect to temperature and humidity, using fresh air from outdoors.


  • International Organisation for Standardisation ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 157 countries, on the basis of one member per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system.ISO is a non-governmental organization: its members are not, as is the case in the United Nations system, delegations of national governments. Nevertheless, ISO occupies a special position between the public and private sectors. This is because, on the one hand, many of its member institutes are part of the governmental structure of their countries, or are mandated by their government. On the other hand, other members have their roots uniquely in the private sector, having been set up by national partnerships of industry associations.
    Therefore, ISO is able to act as a bridging organization in which a consensus can be reached on solutions that meet both the requirements of business and the broader needs of society, such as the needs of stakeholder groups like consumers and users.


  • ISO 9000 Standards 
    This is a set of quality standards developed in 1987 by the International Organization for Standardization. The three major areas of certification are as follows: ISO 9001, which covers all the processes of a company from design and development to procurement, production, testing, installation and service. ISO 9002, which covers everything except design and development ISO 90003, which covers only inspection and testing.
  • ISO 9001 
    A guarantee of ongoing reliability of the overall company organisation.. 850:850All processes of the company operations, from order acceptance right through to delivery, are constantly kept under control
  • ISO 26000
    Gives organizations guidance on implementing social responsibility initiatives.
  • ISO 14001:2004 specifies requirements for an environmental management system to enable an organization to develop and implement a policy and objectives which take into account legal requirements and other requirements to which the organization subscribes, and information about significant environmental aspects. It applies to those environmental aspects that the organization identifies as those which it can control and those which it can influence. It does not itself state specific environmental performance criteria.


  • Laminate -Metallic Laminate
    A laminate where the face of the material consists of a sheet of thin, treated metal, as in the Metallics Range. This metal face can be used alone on the surface or in conjunction with other materials, such as wood veneers, to provide studded or similar effects.
  • Laminate -Veneer Laminate
    A laminate where the face of the material is either a real wood veneer or a reconstituted wood veneer formed to provide realistic or abstract designs, as in the Veneers Range.
  • Laminate- Compact Laminate
    (Also referred to as Solid Grade laminate.) Compact Grade laminate has a solid core built up from multiple layers of resin-impregnated high quality kraft papers to thicknesses between 2mm and 20mm. Each side of the laminate sheet has the same design and surface finish; so Compact Grade laminates are perfectly balanced. The core material acts as a substrate, so that sheets of 6mm thickness and above do not require bonding. Structurally stable and damage resistant, this grade of laminate is particularly suitable for applications where material strength is important.
  • Laminate- Formica
    Formica ColorCore Laminate Formica ColorCore is a high-performance Formica laminate product in which the colour is apparent through the depth and edge of the sheet. Available in standard grade, it is particularly suitable for high wear horizontal surfaces or in areas where continuity of colour through edge detailing is important.
  • Laminate-High Pressure Laminate HPL
    Commonly referred to simply as ‘laminate’. The traditional high quality Formica laminate is constructed from layers of paper impregnated with thermosetting synthetic resins. These saturated papers are fused together under heat and pressure to produce a high performance decorative surfacing material available in a wide variety of colours and designs, with many performance properties.
  • Letter of Credit For importers looking for new suppliers, one of the primary considerations when deciding on payment terms is to ensure that the goods supplied are the goods ordered. With an Import Letter of Credit, importers request that their bank guarantee payment for the goods, provided that certain documentary conditions are met. A fast and secure method of guaranteeing payment to suppliers to expedite shipment from overseas, the Import Letter of Credit includes such features and benefits as:
    Ensures that buyer only be required to pay if conditions of credit are met
    Improved cash flow management
    Minimized financial risks
    Eliminates extensive credit investigations by the seller of the importer
  • MDF interior medium density fibreboard
    Melamine Faced Chipboard (MFC)
    A chipboard substrate with a sheet of treated surface paper bonded to it during production. This surface paper is used to provide the colour and design apparent on the product. Less durable than high pressure laminate, it is particularly suitable for certain vertical applications.
  • What is the difference between MDF and MFC?MFC stands for ˜melamine faced chipboard and the vast majority of office furniture is manufactured with this material. There are a number of thicknesses used, but typically the industry standard is 25mm thick. Some budget ranges are 18mm thick. Most people think of the low grade, unattractive material favoured by high street furniture stores in the 1980s, but todays MFC has come on a long way. Essentially MFC is either of a real wood grain, which is repeatedly printed onto a Melamine film, and heat processed onto a sheet of chipboard.The quality of that chipboard mainly depends on the density of the board. Many domestic furniture uses low density board, which is light. Most commercial grade furniture is made of a dense board “ as it stops flexing and bending. The finished board is then cut to shape and size, edged with a banding machine to protect the edges.These panels can then be used to make furniture “ and its used in desks, workstations, cupboards and pedestals. The colours available vary from factory to factory. There are some common finishes that are used, and whilst they all tend to be the same grain pattern, they can vary from source in shade and grain pattern. MFC is available in a large number of plain colours as well, and special finishes too.MDF, or medium density fiberboard, is a kind of particleboard that is made from composite wood. Specifically, MDF is made from wood waste (specifically the fibers) that are glued together using either heat, resin or pressure. Originally invented in the 1960s, the usage of medium density fiberboard has expanded into all areas of construction. MDF is a very versatile building material that can be used in a variety of applications. This includes making cabinets and mouldings. MDF’s characteristics include being smooth and resistance to warping.While similar to other compressed products, such as particle board or hardboard, MDF board offers superior qualities.MDF is a better material compared to other popular materials like particleboard, wood planks or high density fiberboard for a number of reasons. First, MDF has a very smooth texture mainly because wood fibers used in making the MDF are also smooth and fine. MDF is also a great material when being sawed because the cut portion is smooth immediately after being sawed, as opposed to leaving jagged edges when using other materials, for example, planks of wood. MDF also takes well to painting. Putting on a primer and a couple of coats of paint will leave a nice finished surface, which does not happen with other composite wood products. MDF also has minimal reaction to moisture. This means MDF will not warp or swell when used in environments that have water
  • Minergie MINERGIE is a registered quality label for new and refurbished low-energy-consumption buildings. This label is mutually supported by the Swiss Confederation, the Swiss Cantons and the Principality of Liechtenstein along with Trade and Industry. The label is registered in Switzerland and around the world and is thus protected against unlicensed use. The Minergie label may only be used for buildings, services and components that actually meet the Minergie standard.Building to Minergie standards means providing high-grade, air-tight building envelopes and the continuous renewal of air in the building using an energy-efficient ventilation system. Specific energy consumption is used as the main indicator to quantify the required building quality. In this way, a reliable assessment can be assured. Only the final energy consumed is relevant.
  • NEC
    NEC is a family of contracts that facilitates the implementation of sound project management principles and practices as well as defining legal relationships.It is suitable for procuring a diverse range of works, services and supply, spanning major framework projects through to minor works and purchasing of supplies and goods. The Implementation of NEC3 contracts has resulted in major benefits for projects both nationally and internationally in terms of time, cost savings and improved quality.

Non-performance in the construction industry.  
Non-performance is a general term that describes a party which fails to perform; in fact, the term can cover all forms of failure in performance. A student who fails end-of-year exams may be regarded by the school as a non-performer. In this respect, non-performance is not contractually linked – the student never promised to do well and there was no contact entered into, written or otherwise.
In simple terms, a contract is a legally-binding promise. From a legal perspective, the basis of every contract is that all parties must fulfil all of the contract’s terms. Non-performance occurs when one party to the contract does not fulfil the contract terms – failing to live up to their contractual obligations. Such a failure is not necessarily a breach of contract although it could lead to a breach of contract.
A breach of contract in English Law is non-performance that is not excused because it is the non-performance of a contractual obligation, i.e. a promise was made and was not kept. A breach of contract entitles the innocent party to receive damages from the guilty party. It may also allow the innocent party the right to terminate the contract.
An example of non-performance is a contractor who fails to provide sufficient labour, materials or equipment to a project, leading to a delay to the completion date.
Bonds can provide a degree of protection for the client. Bonds are an undertaking by a bondsman or surety to make a payment in the event of non-performance. Bonds can be ‘on demand’ or ‘conditional’, with conditional bonds requiring that the client provides evidence of the contractor’s non-performance, and that as a consequence the client has suffered a loss.

  • What is a non-performance clause?
    Any failure or refusal by Contractor/buyer  to satisfy or perform any covenant, term or condition of this Agreement required to be satisfied or performed by it.
  • Ordinary cotton fabric is not woven tightly and has less than 180 threads per square inch.
  • Oeko-Tex® Standard 100The Oeko-Tex® Standard 100 is a globally uniform testing and certification system for textile raw materials, intermediate and end products at all stages of production.The tests for harmful substances comprise substances which are prohibited or regulated by law, chemicals which are known to be harmful to health, and parameters which are included as a precautionary measure to safeguard health.A tested textile product is allocated to one of the four Oeko-Tex® product classes based on its intended use. The more intensively a product comes into contact with the skin, the stricter the human ecological requirements it must fulfill.Manufacturers are entitled to mark successfully tested products or article groups with the Oeko-Tex® label and to advertise in other forms as long as it has been proven within the extensive laboratory tests that all components, including accessories, comply with the specified test criteria without exception. A certificate which is issued applies for one year and can be renewed as often as required.
  • Original equipment manufacturer OEM
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to: navigation, search
    “OEM” redirects here. For other uses, see OEM (disambiguation).An original equipment manufacturer, or OEM, manufactures products or components that are purchased by another company and retailed under that purchasing company’s brand name.[1] OEM refers to the company that originally manufactured the product. When referring to automotive parts, OEM designates a replacement part made by the manufacturer of the original part.[2]
  • Percale cotton is closely woven smooth finished fabric having a minimum of 180 threads per square inch. Most often 200 to 550 threads per square inch to give an even more luxurious feel.
  • PEFC and FSC® and certification ensures we can supply our customers with clearly identifiable timber products produced from raw materials from well managed forests.
  • Plywood Make sure you know why using plywood may be your best bet! Solid wood has a tendency to expand and contract as the humidity changes and does not offer the needed stability when constructing the large flat panels (like table tops or cabinet sides). Plywood or particle board (made of ground up wood) is significantly more stable and less apt to warp or split. These panels will often be framed in solid wood and covered by veneers to recreate the look of one large piece of wood.
  • Performance bond
    A performance bond is a surety bond issued by an insurance company or a bank to guarantee satisfactory completion of a project by a contractor.A job requiring a payment & performance bond will usually require a bid bond, to bid the job. When the job is awarded to the winning bid, a payment and performance bond will then be required as a security to the job completion.For example, a contractor may cause a performance bond to be issued in favor of a client for whom the contractor is constructing a building. If the contractor fails to construct the building according to the specifications laid out by the contract (most often due to the bankruptcy of the contractor), the client is guaranteed compensation for any monetary loss up to the amount of the performance bond.Performance bonds are commonly used in the construction and development of real property,[1] where an owner or investor may require the developer to assure that contractors or project managers procure such bonds in order to guarantee that the value of the work will not be lost in the case of an unfortunate event (such as insolvency of the contractor). In other cases, a performance bond may be requested to be issued in other large contracts besides civil construction projects.The term is also used to denote a collateral deposit of “good faith money”,[2] intended to secure a futures contract, commonly known as margin.[3]Performance bonds are generally issued as part of a ‘Performance and Payment Bond’,[4] where a Payment Bond guarantees that the contractor will pay the labour and material costs they are obliged to.
  • Labor and material payment bond
    Guarantee or security provided by a bonding or surety company to the owner (principal) of a construction project on behalf of a contractor. These bonds are issued usually with (and for the same amount as) performance bonds, and cover payment for all equipment, labor, materials, and services in the event the contractor fails to pay for them under to the terms of the contract.
  • Porcelain is a type of hard semi-translucent ceramic generally fired at a higher temperature (1250 1450ºC) than glazed earthenware, or stoneware pottery. It is white, but mildly translucent and can be decorated to provide colour. Made from china clay (kaolin) and chinastone (petuntse) .
    Porcelaine for Hotels Elegant, versatile, practical and strong. It should be impact resistant, dishwashing resistant, microwave resistant, knife scratch resistant Colour of filet or any design should be chosen by ID Alternatives incude white vitreous ceramic china ID, operator, owner ‘s representative to attend FB presentation at which final selection is made. Reinforced edges, chipping safe, a 3 year warranty against chipping is granted on most of our Hotel and Restaurant Cups should be stackable.
  • Project Manager Is responsible for the completion of the project on time and within budget to an appropriate standard.
  • Project Timetable A detailed plan of major project phases, milestones, activities, tasks and the resources allocated to each task
  • Purchase order schedule
    A timetable detailing when items should be tendered, analysed, approved and placed
  • Procurement
    The act of obtaining or buying goods and services. The process includes preparation and processing of a demand as well as the end receipt and approval of payment. It often involves
    (1) purchase planning,
    (2) standards determination,
    (3) specifications development,
    (4) supplier research and selection,
    (5) value analysis,
    (6) financing,
    (7) price negotiation,
    (8) making the purchase,
    (9) supply contract administration,
    (10) inventory control and stores, and
    (11) disposals and other related functions.
    The process of procurement is often part of a company’s strategy because the ability to purchase certain materials will determine if operations will continue. A business will not be able to survive if it’s price of procurement is more than the profit it makes on selling the actual product.Read more:


  • Purchasing AgentAn agent who purchases goods on behalf of an owner.
    Purchasing agents are the last checkpoint through which information passes prior to production of FF&E/OSE. As such they have an obligation to ensure that both clients and designers expectations/intent will be met by the vendors. Specifications must be detailed, clear and unambiguous and any changes must have a specification revision document. Finally, who takes responsibility when items are not made correctly or do not turn out as envisioned by the designer?
  • QualityIn manufacturing, a measure of excellence or a state of being free from defects, deficiencies and significant variations. It is brought about by strict and consistent commitment to certain standards that achieve uniformity of a product in order to satisfy specific customer or user requirements. ISO 8402-1986 standard defines quality as “the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.” If an automobile company finds a defect in one of their cars and makes a product recall, customer reliability and therefore production will decrease because trust will be lost in the car’s quality.
  • The Sale of Goods Act is the main piece of law helping buyers to obtain redress when their purchases go wrong. It is in the interest of anyone who sells goods or services to understand the implications of the Act for them and the responsibilities they have under it.
    Essentially, the Act states that what is sold must fit its description, be fit for its purpose and be of satisfactory quality. If not the supplier – is obliged to sort out the problem.
    Aside from the legal issues, it makes sense to comply with the requirements of the Act in order to build customer relationships.
  • Sample Approval It is important that before orders are placed the Purchaser is quite sure that the quality and features of the items that he is buying are appropriate for the project. Sample of the equipment should be obtained and accessed.
  • Sample Room, or mock-up room is needed for any new hotel project or major guestroom refurbishment. The objective is to create a guestroom exactly as the Interior Designer has designed it using his specified sources. ALL the interested parties then review this at the same time.
  • Shop drawings
    A shop drawing is a drawing or set of drawings produced by the contractor, supplier, manufacturer, subcontractor, or fabricator.[1] Shop drawings are typically required for pre-fabricated components. Examples of these include: elevators, structural steel, trusses, pre-cast, windows, appliances, cabinets, air handling units, and millwork. Also critical are the installation and coordination shop drawings of the MEP trades such as sheet metal ductwork, piping, plumbing, fire protection, and electrical. Shop drawings are not produced by architects and engineers under their contract with the owner. The shop drawing is the manufacturer’s or the contractor’s drawn version of information shown in the construction documents.[1] The shop drawing normally shows more detail than the construction documents. It is drawn to explain the fabrication and/or installation of the items to the manufacturers production crew or contractor’s installation crews. The style of the shop drawing is usually very different from that of the architect’s drawing. The shop drawings primary emphasis is on the particular product or installation and excludes notation concerning other products and installations, unless integration with the subject product is necessary.
  • Shipping Agent
    A third-party company that handles shipping goods to a hotel project and from a supplier.
  • Shot glass
  • Six Sigma DoctrineLike its predecessors, Six Sigma doctrine asserts that:Continuous efforts to achieve stable and predictable process results (i.e., reduce process variation) are of vital importance to business success.
    Manufacturing and business processes have characteristics that can be measured, analyzed, improved and controlled.
    Achieving sustained quality improvement requires commitment from the entire organization, particularly from top-level management.Features that set Six Sigma apart from previous quality improvement initiatives include:A clear focus on achieving measurable and quantifiable financial returns from any Six Sigma project.[5]
    An increased emphasis on strong and passionate management leadership and support.[5]
    A special infrastructure of “Champions”, “Master Black Belts”, “Black Belts”, “Green Belts”, etc. to lead and implement the Six Sigma approach.[5]
    A clear commitment to making decisions on the basis of verifiable data and statistical methods, rather than assumptions and guesswork.[5]The term “Six Sigma” comes from a field of statistics known as process capability studies. Originally, it referred to the ability of manufacturing processes to produce a very high proportion of output within specification. Processes that operate with “six sigma quality” over the short term are assumed to produce long-term defect levels below 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO).[36][37] Six Sigma’s implicit goal is to improve all processes to that level of quality or better.Six Sigma is a registered service mark and trademark of Motorola Inc.[38] As of 2006 Motorola reported over US$17 billion in savings[39] from Six Sigma. Other early adopters of Six Sigma who achieved well-publicized success include Honeywell (previously known as AlliedSignal) and General Electric, where Jack Welch introduced the method.[40] By the late 1990s, about two-thirds of the Fortune 500 organizations had begun Six Sigma initiatives with the aim of reducing costs and improving quality.[41]In recent years, some practitioners have combined Six Sigma ideas with lean manufacturing to create a methodology named Lean Six Sigma.[42] The Lean Six Sigma methodology views lean manufacturing, which addresses process flow and waste issues, and Six Sigma, with its focus on variation and design, as complementary disciplines aimed at promoting “business and operational excellence”.[42] Companies such as IBM and Sandia National Laboratories use Lean Six Sigma to focus transformation efforts not just on efficiency but also on growth. It serves as a foundation for innovation throughout the organization, from manufacturing and software development to sales and service delivery function


  • Site DimensionsAny supplier who is making items that need to fit exactly to site conditions such as case goods, curtains, and fabricated kitchen equipment must be responsible for measuring the site dimensions. In the case of carpet this should be the carpet installer
  • Software as a service (SaaS), sometimes referred to as “on-demand software”, is a software delivery model in which software and associated data are centrally hosted on the cloud. SaaS is typically accessed by users using a thin client via a web browser.
  • What is Soncap?SONCAP stands for the Standards Organisation of Nigeria (SON) Conformity Assessment Programme.…
  • Spare PartsVendors must guarantee the availability of spare parts for a given period, normally not less than six years.
  • Standard is a document, established by consensus that provides rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results. (As defined in ISO/IEC Guide 2:1996) For core OS&E Standards I include *
  • Specification Guidelines (functional and technical) which correspond to the requirements of the international hotel operator
    equipment must also correspond to local and operators codes like fire, health, hygiene, environmental, electrical.
    Operator’ standards to be used where applicable and where they are higher or equal to the local appropriate standards particularly in respect of conditions on health, safety and environmental.
  • Strength & stability Furniture to comply to BS4875 general contract use or similar. To be guaranteed against faulty workmanship & or usage of defective materials for 5 years from date of manufacture.
  • Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982 (SOGAS)
    The Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982 requires a supplier of a service acting in the course of business in England, Wales and Northern Ireland to carry out that service with reasonable care and skill and, unless agreed to the contrary, within a reasonable time and make no more than a reasonable charge.
  • SWOT analysis is an extremely useful tool for understanding and decision-making for all sorts of situations in business and organizations. SWOT is an acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats.
  • Table Top Review
    The purpose of the table top review is to select the customer contact Food and Beverage Items. These need to be appropriate for the Food and Beverage Concept and coordinate with its interior designs or the outlets concerned. The other objective is ensuring the selected items can be purchased within the budget. Again all those interested in the selection including the Interior Designer should be present on the same day.


  • The Catering Equipment Distributors Association – CEDA
    – forms a network of professional companies devoted to the supply, installation and servicing of catering equipment throughout the UK.
    The reputation and standing within the industry of a distribution company becoming a member of CEDA is immediately enhanced, and distributor and customer alike experience the benefits of membership. The strength of the Association lies in its adherence to quality practices and customer service.
    The following is a brief outline of the support offered by CEDA
    * Code Of Practice & Customer Charter * General Services/Permanent Secretariat * Training * Communication * Marketing Support * Annual Conference * CEDACARE * Catering Standards Registration Board – CESRB * Fellowship


  • Time is of the Essence
    Vendors must deliver when they are required to do so. Failure to do this entitles the Purchaser to cancel the order. The Purchaser may also cancel the order if he has reasonable cause for believing that delivery will be late.
  • Trades Description Act
    Information from DTI
  • UKAS The United Kingdom Accreditation Service is the sole national accreditation body recognised by government to assess, against internationally agreed standards, organisations that provide certification, testing, inspection and calibration services. Accreditation by UKAS demonstrates the competence, impartiality and performance capability of these evaluators.
  • UL Underwriters Laboratories
    Underwriters Laboratories ® is an independent product safety certification organization that has been testing products and writing standards for safety for more than a century. UL evaluates more than 19,000 types of products, components, materials and systems annually with 20 billion UL Marks appearing on 72,000 manufacturers’ products each year. UL’s worldwide family of companies and network of service providers includes 64 laboratory, testing and certification facilities serving customers in 98 countries.
    Mission includes:
    * To promote safe living and working environments by the application of safety science and hazard-based safety engineering * To support the production and use of products which are physically and environmentally safe and to apply efforts to prevent or reduce loss of life and property * To advance safety science through research and investigation * To concentrate efforts and resources on public safety in those areas where valuable contributions can be made * To work with integrity and a focus on quality to enhance the trust conveyed by certification marks * To charge fair prices and invest in safety science and education * To invest in people and encourage our people to invest in themselves * To be a good example of corporate citizenship and social responsibility
  • Valuation payment/staged paymentDefinitionSave to Favorites
    Payment in scheduled (but not necessarily regular or equal in amount) installmentsRead more:…

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  • Veneering Make sure you know what “veneering” is. Veneer is the use of thin layers(from 0.6mm thick) of highly decorative woods on top of plywood, particle board or medium-density fiberboard (MDF). Veneering makes it possible to match grain patterns or use inlays to create designs that mother nature can’t produce in solid wood. But beware of cheaper furniture which reproduces wood grain photographically. If it is photographic, the grain will be perfect, with none of the flaws of nature, and the grain will have no natural variations.
  • Vinyl for five star hotel
    These should be 54″ wide fabric backed vinyls with a minimum weight of 12/14 ozs/yd2 in guestrooms and
    16 ozs/yd2 in corridors and public areas.
  • Wall vinyl
    PVC is the common abbreviation for polyvinyl chloride, one member of a large class of polymers called vinyls. Vinyl constitutes one of the most versatile groups of plastics, which range in form from soft flexible sheeting to hard, rigid structures, either of which may be solid or cellular (foam). PVC and its derivatives are the second highest tonnage plastic in the world.
  • Warranty
    The length and nature of the warranty should be adapted to the particular product being ordered. In the case of carpet the supplier should warrant its product against
  • Working drawings
    In architectural drafting, the working drawings are all plans, elevations, and details needed by the contractor along with the specifications, so that an estimate can be obtained and then the building can be constructed. These need to show all dimensions and be properly scaled. Any oddities of construction must be made clear on these drawings and they must be so complete in a way that no extra money can be charged to the owner by the contractor who bid the job as is shown in the working drawings and specifications. Below is a general description of what they contain.Article Source:
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